Some guide theories of foreign language learning for motivating personal development in pedagogical experiment
The article describes the essential approaches, identifying the general pedagogical problems, as research ones, connecting with clear specifying the items and positions of the teaching-learning aspects of educational structure as a whole. The process of competence teaching is described from the position of connectionism and parallel distributed processes in communication of foreign language possessing‘ participants.
«Tantum scimus, quantum memoria tenemus». Мы знаем столько, сколько удерживаем в памяти.
«Difficile est propie communia dicere». Трудно по-своему выразить общеизвестное.
«Remissius imperanti Melius paretur». Тому, кто мягко приказывает, лучше повинуются.
«A potiori fit denomination». Наименование присваивается по преобладающему признаку.
(Один из признаков формальной логики).
It is well known, that possessing the foreign language is considered to be a success. Success as a definition and notion may be described from many positions, but all of them are connected and united. The core of this connection is the s called Individual Learner Factor, affected by individual learner differences. The description of the educational process and educational sphere includes a lot of approaches, depending on a lot of meaningful factors. There are some of them probably the most significant ones, because they influence greatly the whole process not only education as a final result of learning-teaching, but establishment, as intellectual, moral, psychological, social and professional stable unity, as an expected result of rational, competence, deep and reasonable development of a personality. When we say about the leading role of Individual learner in development with the help and under great influence of foreign language learning, we take into account individual learner differences, detailed described in the works of famous scientists (Ellis) and teachers of many generations of educators. First of all we mean the so called “learner factors”. They are extremely important for building up, and then carrying out the very learning-teaching strategies, oriented to excellent pedagogical (including elements of parental – why not?) results. Saying about learner differences, we first of all mention age, attitude, aptitude, cognitive style, personality and its essential characteristics and features, motivation, psychological organization, visible level of intellectual and emotional development brought by the taught one from the family or the space of his(her) previous existential development.
Alice Omaggio Hadley with colleagues described and proposed as effective for taking into account in the work with students of different age and different levels of personal development information about Various Cognitive Style Differences definitions. While taking them into account at the preparatory stage of teachers-learners communication we may foresee the positive result of all involved in the process of teaching tasks by increasing risks of tactical and strategic teacher s’ and emotional and intellectual students’ losses. The first one category is the so called Field Independence, closely connected by its’ deep sense with group work in a team of participants. The main item of this is a degree of Field Independence, connected with perceptual behavior. A person may be with a law degree of field independence, taking a more global approach to a task. A person with a high degree of field independence tends to perceive individual items as discrete from their backgrounds. With witty teachers’ approach to both – both of types may be used maximally effective in a team group work. The second one is Breadth of categorization. It reflects the individual tendency to construct broad or narrow categories for items [1, p. 65]. The broad categorizer tends to make wide category designations, so as to include many items. The narrow categorizer prefers smaller and more excusive category and designations. The third level means a lot as well, and it is Levelling-Sharpening. It shows us how information is assimilated in memory- to blue similar memories or maintain distinction among the items stored. We name this “perception-reception”. The person who is preceptive assimilates new information into previously held concepts. The receptive person thinks a little about how new information fits into existing categories without preconceived notions. The fourth level is called Impulsiveness-Reflectiveness and is responsible for speed with which a person makes decisions. There are impulsive and reflective individuals. The first ones make decisions rapidly, while the second ones before deciding on an answer or making a choice, prefer to take their time. The fifth one is Systematicness. Some people prefer to use a clear procedure or plan before completing a task, and follow it strictly “in a linear or systematic fashion”. Others are very creative and strong enough, preferring to develop their ideas freely. They may creatively skip from the part to the whole “in an intuitive fashion”. The sixth one is Tolerance or Ambiguity. The main item in this definition is a high or law tolerance of ambiguity. Having a high tolerance of ambiguity, a person can deal with uncertainty fairly comfortably. Absolutely opposite situation with a person who has a low tolerance. He (she) may become anxious or frustrated in a situation “when a task presents unknown elements or seems ambiguous or difficult”. The seventh one may be called almost resulting All the previous, and it is called Flexibility- Inflexibility. All people have to make solutions in the course of their existence among the others, in planned or unexpected situations, in comfortable or aggressive space, with those beloved or hatred, interesting or dull, successful or fail events or daily routine process. Some persons, being “lucky dogs intellectually”, can easily find alternative solutions to a problem, easy or difficult, expected or unexpected. A variety of questions may be characterized as flexible [2, p. 369]. The other category, the individuals, unwilling “to abandon a particular solution to a problem”, trying to get rid of responsibility for making decisions as a whole. Their tendency to think is rather limited, because they tend to think in terms of one “right” answer. They may be called inflexible from the position of cognitive style.
Trying to summarize all these position of teaching-learning foreign language in a scientific context, the teachers have to take into account all types of learners to communicate with, and communicate maximum effectively. So, the teachers have been improving the structure of their statements in and for all situations, appropriate questions, kinds of questions, evaluation sheet for listeners and so on, for all types of daily Types of Qualitative studies. Due to formation of effective zone for intellectual development of those learned, preliminary work as preparatory one is desirable. In experiment the students have been going through a starting guideline for the best penetrating through the competence space of their future profession. It may a block of texts, question lists, quest tasks, monitoring question scheme and so on. A starting guideline is to help students to know more about their future job, why they want to take it, to know more about their own abilities and level of opportunities-possibilities for using by them being opened to them. So, the students answer the following: 1. Introduction to my subject, the parts I am interested in and why; 2. What I have done related to my subject. 3. How I estimate work experience and things I had done before. 4. My interests outside of University (also contained my responsibilities). 5. My goal of going to University (getting a job with this sphere of activity). The students are ready to be honest answering the questions concerning their psychological readiness to be a good listener, preparing to be a good speaker. Being involved effectively in a process of listening to a speaker(public speech, report, list of orders and so on), the students discover their interest (or it’s absence) to what the speaker provided as much information (or lack of it), and even some special listening characteristics, which can be estimated later by a teacher as “excellent”, “good”, or “needs improvement”. They are: maintained eye contact, maintained appropriate distance from the speaker, appeared interest in what the speaker had to say, avoided destructing mannerism (shaking feet, fidgeting, etc.), provided feedback to the speaker, asked questions when necessary, understood what the speaker had to say, made the speaker feel comfortable and confident, and so on.
In the head of the process there has been A Teacher, as a forerunner of a success in learning, whose destiny was to learn universal wisdom and to teach it, in order to reach achievement in self-realization. It has been improving the world, as common sense and good will of those interested in “Not Leave Our Future Behind”. All valuable positions of teaching foreign language proved their effectiveness and innovative approach to competence understanding of modern education for the world of a sustainable development [3, p. 101-111].
- Bruce W.Tuckman. Conducting educational research. New-York, 1987.
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