Developing speaking skills in the process of solving a problem-oriented situation in English lessons

The article discusses the issue of the implementation of conversational skills and a problematic approach in teaching foreign languages. The definition of problem learning of a foreign language as a specially organized type of educational and cognitive activity aimed at finding solutions to the system of communicative, cognitive, problematic tasks and problem situations, as a result of which the skills and abilities of foreign language communication, mastering the experience of creative activity, as well as the formation of culture thinking and cognitive interests of students by means of a foreign language is given in the article.

Аннотация статьи
problem-oriented learning
creative thinking
critical thinking
practical task
learning task
learning activity
Ключевые слова

Modern teachers recognize that problem-based teaching technology provides maximum opportunities for the development of creativity and intellectual activity and the development of speaking skills.

Let's take a look at the methods used to accomplish these goals. Most foreign language teachers turn to non-traditional methods for different types of role-playing games, the use of dramatic works, problem learning. Project work is also considered by teachers as one of the non-traditional and effective methods of teaching a foreign language.

In domestic didactics, the definition of problem learning was given by M.I. Makhmutov: “Problem-based learning is a form of developmental education with the development of speaking skills that combines the systematic independent search activity of students with their assimilation of ready-made scientific conclusions, and the system of methods is built taking into account objectivity and the principle of problematicity” [6]. The need to use problem situations was pointed out by A.A. Leontiyev: “We need to turn the learning process into a system of problem situations. And the content of training exists in a system of resources aimed at solving these problem situations” [7].

The key concept of problem learning that development of speaking is a "problem situation" that is created by the teacher for educational purposes. It covers both a complex theoretical and a practical issue requiring study, expansion, research in combination with certain conditions and circumstances that create a specific situation (situation).

The main tasks of studying foreign languages for bachelors of any specialty are to acquire communicative competence.

Problematic teaching methods develop the creative activity of students, contributes to the development of students' independence, their inclusion in search activities. It opens up opportunities for creative cooperation between teacher and student, promotes a deeper and more sustainable assimilation of material and methods of activity [8].

Problem teaching is carried out in the following basic forms: a) problem presentation of the material by a teacher; b) partial search activity of students with the participation of a teacher during practical, seminar and laboratory hours. The key concept of problem learning is a "problem" that is created by a teacher for pedagogical purposes.

The levels of problem-based learning depend on the content of the educational material (the ability to create tasks of varying degrees of complexity) and the type of student's independent actions.

When identifying and formulating problem situations of any level, the teacher should be guided by the following requirements: to identify and show the contradictions that determine the emergence and development of a particular phenomenon; to orient students towards maximum independence in cognitive activity; to correlate the problematic situation, on the one hand, to rely on the basic didactic principles (scientific, systematic, clear, etc.) [9].

Taking into account the specifics of a foreign language as a subject and its increased complexity, it can be concluded that only problem-oriented tasks that contribute to the activation of students' activities and the formation of practical speaking skills in using a foreign language as a means of communication contribute to optimizing the learning process, learning a foreign language and achieving better results.

Problematic situations, undoubtedly, contribute to a better assimilation of new material, activate speech thinking activity, cognitive needs of students, their independent activity and the development of creative potential and development speaking skills. The key to success is a teacher's assimilation of the content and essence of the theory of organizing the process of problem-oriented formation of communicative competence, mastering the forms, methods and technology of problem-based learning and the systematic creative application of the learned in practice.

To implement the problematic method, you must consider the following:

1. selection of urgent problems;

2. determination of the functions of the method of problem learning;

3. an individual approach and skill of a teacher.

To create a problem, you need to use the following techniques:

1. a teacher leads the students to a contradiction and invites them to find a way to solve it themselves.

2. a teacher expresses different views on this issue.

3. a teacher encourages students to make comparisons, generalizations, conclusions.

4. a teacher asks specific questions.

We will introduce some types of classes using a problem-based teaching method with development speaking skills. One of the ways to activate students in the process of learning a foreign language is design (project method), when a student independently plans, creates, protects his project. In addition, the subject competence of a teacher himself increases. Personally oriented learning, collaborative learning, project methods to a certain extent allow to solve the problem of motivation, to form a positive attitude towards learning a foreign language, when students learn with enthusiasm and reveal the potential of everyone [10]. This allows us to take fully into account the individual characteristics of each student, that is, to apply a student-centered approach in teaching foreign languages. The main principle in this direction is that the center of learning should be a student, not a teacher, the activity of cognition, not learning. The project method is a way to achieve a didactic goal through a detailed study of the problem, which should end with a very real, tangible practical result, somehow formalized, the project method is always focused on the independent activities of students: individual, pair, group, which they perform during a certain period time. This technology includes a set of research, search, problematic methods that are creative.

Let's list the main requirements for the use of the design method: the presence of a significant research, creative problem that requires research to solve it; practical, theoretical, cognitive significance of the expected results; independent (individual, pair, group) classes for students in the classroom; structure of the content of the project; use of research methods: definition of the problem, the purpose of the study; solution hypothesis, discussion of research methods; registration of final results; analysis of the data obtained, generalization, correction, conclusions.

 There are certain principles of project activities: variability (use of individual, pair, group methods of work, choice of a topic and various exercises, study of texts such as dialogues, tables, letters, maps, questionnaires); solve the problem (a problem makes students think, and therefore learn); independence, choice of project form, distribution of tasks in a group, systematization of intermediate materials); create a comfortable environment in class (the absence of fear of communicating in a foreign language helps to better master complex topics in the program); learning with enthusiasm (learning is easier if students enjoy the process); personal factor (project work gives students the opportunity to think and talk about themselves, their lives, their interests, hobbies); adaptation of tasks (you cannot offer a student a task that he cannot cope with; when choosing a task, age characteristics, educational opportunities, one should take into account the stages of work on the project) [11].

During the lessons of the project, students can use, along with their language knowledge, their speaking skills and experience in other areas (sociology, statistics, etc.), their abilities to work with a computer and communicate with other people.

Work on a project is a holistic and consistent system carried out in stages:

Planning. At this stage, students face a hidden problem that needs to be formulated. The main task of the teacher is to present the situation in such a way that the students independently react to the solution of the problem.

Performance. At this stage, students' language and speaking skills are realized. Here, the previously formed communication and speaking skills in a foreign language are improved; the basis for independent statements of students is laid. The teacher's task is to motivate students to speak a foreign language and control the progressive activity of students.

Presentation. Each group defends the project according to a pre-prepared plan. The teacher needs to avoid speech mistakes. On the day of the project defense, a teacher must comment on the statements of the students, discuss and evaluate the answers.

The control. The task of a teacher is to assess correctly the project as a whole, creative approach and clear presentation.

The famous Russian scientist E.S.Polat has developed the following typology of projects by type of activity:

1. role-playing games, dramatizations, dramatizations (fairy tales, tv shows, holidays, musical performances, etc.)

2. research (regional studies, generalization of scientific knowledge, historical, environmental, etc.) is characterized by a well-thought-out structure, goal-setting. such projects are structurally close to real scientific research.

3. creativity (essays, translation, scripts, wall newspapers, etc.)

4. multimedia presentations [12].

What sources of information are usually used when preparing a project: a) books; b) magazines; to the Internet; d) teacher; e) others.

Round table lesson is an exchange of views on any issue or problem of interest to the participants in the communication. Participation in the round table requires students to have a sufficiently high level of language speaking skills and some knowledge of the problem.

Essay lesson. This method involves developing your own position, your own attitude to the text read. Students should be able to express their thoughts on the stated problem in writing, learn to defend their point of view.

Analyzing all of the above, we can conclude that the most productive and relevant methods of learning a foreign language now are communicative and problematic.

The use of a problem-oriented approach in teaching professional communication in teaching a foreign language shows its relevance, the potential to increase the motivation of students of non-linguistic specialties (especially economic) to study a foreign language, increases the level of their professional competence in using foreign languages when performing everyday professional tasks. This, in turn, increases their competitiveness in the labor market [13].

The analyzed approach has great potential for use in foreign language lessons. It has both linguistic advantages, as shown in the study of the role of natural, meaning-oriented interaction in the classroom in learning a foreign language, and affective advantages in the form of increasing student motivation and encouraging student independence in independent learning outside the classroom.

Unfortunately, teachers of foreign languages try to make the educational process modern and effective, not understanding what methods are needed for this. In addition, the authors of the articles in isolated cases consider the most important question of what kind of linguistic personality a student should become today as a result of learning a foreign language using all the innovations.

Текст статьи
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  6. Makhmutov M.I. Problematic learning. - M.: Pedagogy, 1975, p.p.368.
  7. Leontiyev A.A. Common Sense Pedagogy. Selected works on the philosophy of education and educational psychology. - M.: Smysl, 2016, p.p.528.
  8. Zimnyaya I.A. Psychological aspects of teaching spoken language in a foreign language. Moscow: Education, 1978, p.p.178.
  9. Konysheva A.V. Modern methods of teaching English. SPb: KARO, Minsk: "Four quarters". 2003, p.p.215.
  10.  Passov E.I. A communicative method of teaching spoken language in a foreign language. 2nd ed. Moscow: Enlightenment.
  11.  Teslina O.V. Project forms of work at an English lesson // IYASH. Number 3, p.p.41-46.
  12.  Polat E.S. Methods of projects in a foreign language lesson // Institute of YaSh. 2000. No. 2. p.p.310, No. 3.
  13.  Kitaygorodskaya G.A. Methods of intensive teaching of foreign languages K.: Higher school, 1988, p.p.344.
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