The importance of linguistic analysis of media materials in learning foreign language
The article considers some problems as the knowledge of the peculiarities of mass media language and style in teaching foreign languages. It also views the importance of the ability to make linguistic analysis of the foreign news materials and interpreting the text.
The language and style of modern media attract the attention of scientists. This is due to the linguistic and stylistic features of the language of the media, the linguistic and cultural aspects of language teaching also expand the problem of the language of the media. In recent years, the mass media, a source of information, plays an important role in teaching a foreign language. This is due to the fact that the use of mass media in language acquisition has eliminated the use of only textbooks, that is, it can be proved that learning took place outside the classroom. Today it is rare to find a person who does not use mass media materials. Obtaining the necessary information not only in the native language, but also in a foreign language is becoming increasingly important, especially in the independent work of modern students.
However, in order to be able to use media materials, it is necessary to learn own style and language of the mass media (press). Consideration of the language and style of the media depends on its type, i.e. the style of speech used on television may take on a different character in the press.
Comparing the features of media texts with the literary language, scientists had recognized that it is a mistake to consider it inferior. Knowledge the peculiarities of using media materials are very effective when using information in a foreign language. One of the communicative requirements of language teaching at the present stage is language learning based on original materials. This increases a students’ motivation to learn a language as these tools can be used by language learners and native speakers. At the same time, using words and worldview of each country is reflected in their use of the language.
Deviations from some of the language norms specific to the language of the press can also be a problem for language learners. Therefore, the presence of the necessary knowledge in learning the foreign language based on mass media materials, removes some difficulties. The types of such work include linguistic analysis of press materials, identification of the features and difficulties of translating texts, familiarization with the style of the newspaper, grammatical lexical, punctuation features, and others.
Although the media material is a combination of various stylistic features, it can be said that it has its own stylistic features and words. Among the materials of the newspaper, when analyzing the news, the main attention is paid to its structure. The most important information is in the foreground here. At the same time, newspaper news does not follow the same chronological order as in other texts [2, p. 172].
Pay attention to the title and summary of the article, while analyzing the newspaper articles. The role of the title of the article is important here, as it attracts the attention of the reader. The main theme has its own characteristics. It often consists of nominal phrases and does not have the form of a full sentence. For example, “India House death bid case dropped”. According to Mard, the main topic of the article consists of an average of seven words [4, p. 88].
According to Van Dijk, the macrostructure helps to determine the main theme of the text [6, p. 130]. It leads to the reduction and organization of information, reflects the discursive nature of the text. These include abbreviations (removing unnecessary information), generalizations (generalizing multiple words), and constructions (combining multiple sentences). Reading the text in parts violates its structure and does not allow you to fully absorb the information. Checking the understanding of the read text is carried out using various exercises.
Every newspaper article will cover this issue. Ideology is expressed not only in words, but also in the elements of the language structure, such as grammar, syntax, punctuation [3, p. 69]. Working with newspaper articles is often based on the types of work with foreign texts. Before working with the text, work is carried out to eliminate barriers that cause lexical and grammatical difficulties when reading original newspaper texts.
The grammatical structure is a key element of articles in the press. The use of active and passive sentences depends on the purpose of the author to provide the main information. For example: The police shot a demonstrator. A demonstrator was shot by the police. In the first sentence, the word “police” comes to the fore, and in the second example, the main theme is the word “demonstrator”. Verbs are also often used as nouns. Example: The shooting was investigated. Here one word can replace a whole sentence. If, sentences in which the main performer does not participate, a non-final infinitive clause is often used. For example: To maintain this policy is hard.
Punctuation plays a special role in the analysis of media materials. For example, the use of apostrophes in abbreviated words, the use of commas to convey the meaning of a word, the use of hyphens, quotation marks in prefixes and suffixes, the use of headwords, etc.
The media contains information that is often used by socio-political elements. One of the main functions of the newspaper is information and propaganda, as it is carried out mainly through a group of words included in the socio-political vocabulary, that is, it is the original vocabulary of the newspaper. The principles of publication is aimed at influencing the reader: to inform him about important events in the world and to arouse the reader's interest in the newspaper, i.е. pay attention to the publication, convince the reader of the accuracy, truthfulness and objectivity of the assessment [1, p. 52].
Adjectives play a key role in describing people and events. “The use of adjectives should be treated with extreme caution,” says Meryl. Use of adjectives has a positive or negative effect [5, p. 73]. He proposes to divide adjectives into subjective, objective and intermediate, not related to these two types. For example: data – дата, institution – институт, speculation – спекуляция.
The fact that in newspaper articles the words are not given verbatim causes confusion when reading the text. Translations sometimes interfere with the understanding of the meaning of the text, because all the motivation of the student is spent on translating foreign words. In order to avoid such difficulties at the initial stage, it is necessary to provide them with light newspaper texts that do not know all the words of the text, and be sure to understand them without translation. One of the difficulties in understanding text is that words have the same form but differ in meaning in all languages. These include political terms, international words and neologisms. For example, data, institutions, assumptions, etc.
In addition to analyzing media materials allow students to independently translate media materials, write articles, press releases, and other creative work. These types of work let the student to independently search and study a large number of information. However, the performance of these types of work requires knowledge of its own requirements. For example, in the case of a press release or a commentary, the student may perform the press release incorrectly if he does not know the purpose, structure, language features of the press release.
Working with media texts are closely connected with interpretation. It includes the social significance of the event, the conditionality of people's actions by the conclusion of what they read. In addition, the student's ability to find basic information in media coverage, determine the stylistic device, theme, main idea and issue under consideration, as well as express their opinion on a newspaper report, also requires the ability to work with press texts.
Ignorance of the political situation in the country where the incident took place also makes it difficult to analyze the text. In this case, preliminary work with students should be carried out. Since the form of reading newspaper texts is internal reading, there is no emphasis on reading aloud. You can work only with difficult terms or work on the correct pronunciation of some names.
The main goal of working with media materials are to teach foreign language learners to pay attention to the meaning of the text, to read and understand it without internal translation, to be able to analyze, extracting information from the text. The use of media texts in discussions allows us to express our opinion on problems and gain a deeper understanding of the problem. Linguistic analysis of media materials, important aspects of knowing its features, working with communicative lexical exercises and discussion of problematic issues, understanding and translating issues for discussion at round tables or conferences, texts of the socio-political press, conversations and short statements on the topic. There are proposed thematic materials.
When using materials from a foreign language press in teaching a foreign language, student needs to know the general features of the language and style of the media, linguistic analysis of the article, understanding the meaning of concepts in the context, etc. very important. If these points are not taken into account when using foreign language material, only its general meaning will remain known, and this will lead to difficulties in fully understanding the material.
- Bell, Allan. The Language of the News Media. - Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell, 199 p. 104.
- Fowler, Roger. “The intervention of the media in the reproduction of power.” In Approaches to Discourse, Poetics and Psychiatry, ed. Diaz-Diocaretz, Van Dijk and Zavala. – Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1987. p. 67-80.
- Mardh, Ingrid. Headlinese: On the Grammar of Front page Headlines, 1980.
- Merrill, John C. “How Time stereotyped Three U.S. Presidents”, 1965. Reprinted in Language Power, ed. Boltz&Seyler, - New-York: Random House, 1982. p.71-82.
- Van Dijk, Teun A. Text and Context: Explorations in the semantics and pragmatics of discourse. - London: Longman, 1977.
- Van Leeuwen, Theo. “The representation of social actors.” In Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical discourse Analysis, ed. Caldas- Coulthard&Coulthard. - London: Routledge, 199 p. 32-70.