Маркетинг влияния как коммуникационный инструмент продвижения товаров в социальных сетях

В статье рассмотрены преимущества привлечения лидеров мнений/влиятельных лиц в социальных сетях с целью привлечения внимания целевой аудитории, распространения рекламной информации и установления коммуникационной связи между компанией и потребителями.

Аннотация статьи
маркетинг влияния
лидеры мнений
социальные сети
маркетинг
Ключевые слова

Introduction

A modern company has in its arsenal many tools and technologies of communication impact on consumers, actively introducing new approaches to the development and implementation of a product promotion complex. Most experts note that traditional advertising means of influencing consumers, such as television or even banner advertising, are gradually losing their effectiveness. At the same time, the activity of social interaction through social networks is increasing from year to year. Among innovative technologies and the latest marketing communications tools, influencer marketing has recently become more widespread, which involves the involvement of opinion leaders in order to attract the attention of the target audience and distribute advertising information. Global trends show that it is easier for users to perceive information through social networks, since this type of communication does not tire potential consumers [7, p. 1 and beyond]. As a means of communication, social networks create an environment in which users, united by common interests and values, actively and comprehensively interact with each other. This virtual communication space stimulates the development of new, promising areas of marketing activity.

Main definitions

Perhaps the most recognizable figure in the history of influencer marketing is Santa Claus. As you know, he began to appear on the posters of Coca-Cola since 1920, which indicates a rather long existence of influencer marketing. Of course, a lot has changed since then thanks to the spread of the Internet. However, the basics of influencer marketing have remained the same: you need to find a well-known figure to demonstrate to your customers that you can be trusted.

So, influencer marketing is a modern tool, the essence of which is to appeal to the target audience of the brand of a famous person, whom consumers trust and whose opinion they listen to. Such individuals are called opinion leaders [2, p. 352].

It is worth noting that currently the main focus of influencer marketing is on social media campaigns, although earlier the campaign used more traditional channels: television, banners, product packaging.

Speaking about influencer marketing, they often mean promotion through bloggers on Facebook, Instagram, VKontakte, Odnoklassniki, Youtube video platform, Livejournal blogging platform. However, it is important to note that any person whose opinion is trusted and ready to be listened to can act as an influencer. In particular, Forbes proposes to classify influencers into 6 types: celebrities, journalists, industry experts, outstanding personal brands, analysts, intermediaries.

No less popular is the classification of influencers by the number of subscribers: [5, p. 745]

  1. Micro-influencers - from 5 to 100 thousand subscribers;
  2. Middle (medium) - from 100 thousand to a million;
  3. Macro-influencers - over a million followers.

The experience of cooperation with bloggers shows that the most effective cooperation is with micro-influencers who have from 5 to 100 thousand subscribers. Studies show that it is easier for a blogger to communicate interactively and retain the attention of a small audience, respectively, advertising a product/brand is more effective when working with micro-influencers. The key advantages of using influencers as a communication tool in the marketing activities of companies are:

  • attracting attention and influencing the perception of the target audience;
  • formation of consumer value of the product/brand;
  • presentation by a source of information that is characterized by a high level of consumer confidence;
  • the effectiveness of the communication channel, providing feedback to the consumer;
  • personal interest in cooperation in order to form their own image and increase the popularity of the person who is involved as an opinion leader;
  • increasing the efficiency of informing the target audience about the peculiarities of product consumption, its unique characteristics, specifics of application.

We define the stages of marketing activities aimed at direct or hidden influence on the target audience with the help of opinion leaders, the consistent implementation of which will ensure the maximum effectiveness of the overall company promotion strategy (table).

The first step is to clearly define the purpose of marketing activities to attract influencers. The following goals are distinguished when working with opinion leaders:

  • brand awareness;
  • increase in company website traffic;
  • demonstration of methods/options for using the product;
  • increase in the number of company subscribers in social networks;
  • improving the attitude of the target audience to the brand;
  • increase in sales;
  • increase in the level of trust.

The second stage is the research stage, it provides for conducting marketing research, the purpose of which is to compile a profile of the target audience and determine the profile of a person who has authority among the representatives of the target audience and will ensure effective communication with her. The purposefulness and effectiveness of the company's interaction with the consumer is based on the knowledge of his psychological and behavioral portrait. Since drawing up a psychological portrait of a consumer and determining the characteristics of a person who can potentially influence him is possible only on the basis of primary marketing information, therefore, marketing research and selective observation are mandatory components of the research stage. In order to comprehensively capture the profile of consumers, the questionnaire design should include questions that will determine their demographic, psychological, economic, social and behavioral characteristics.

The third stage involves the search, evaluation and selection of potential candidates for the place of agents of influence. Experts note that with the development of influencer marketing and its popularization, companies are faced with two key problems – finding influencers and managing the process of relationships with them. Evaluation of candidates should be carried out from the standpoint of achieving the most effective impact on the target audience, therefore, the implementation of this stage requires the determination of such indicators as the activity of candidates in social networks, the number of publications, the size of the advertising audience that they have and the potential to increase it, the percentage of likes and comments, intensity of publications, percentage of feedback. At this stage, experts recommend using the rule of three RRRs:

  • The content of the influencer is relevant to the specifics of the business, respectively, its subscribers are the target audience of the influencer;
  • The number of blogger subscribers, the average coverage of his publications and the activity of followers are determined;
  • The potential level of engagement of target consumers that the influencer can provide to the brand is determined.

However, recently, experts have noted that there is a danger of getting fictitious indicators that the page owner artificially creates in order to increase the popularity of his own page. For example, this is the number of fake followers. Recent studies on this issue show that celebrities, politicians and companies often fund the attraction of fake followers in order to visually increase their own popularity. Therefore, it is recommended to use special software products that can detect non-existent subscribers. Experts suggest that parameters such as the number of real comments and reviews, interaction with users will be the most significant when choosing a candidate for the position of an influential person.

The next important point at this stage is the study of the content of a potential blogger, analysis of the correspondence of his worldview and life values to the concept and philosophy of the brand, identification of companies and brands with which the blogger is already cooperating. If possible, it is recommended to give preference to a potential influencer, whom the brand knows and disposes to him. The last factor will ensure that the influencer is 100% sincere when presenting the product, recommending its purchase and use, indicating consumer preferences and own consumption experience.

The next, fourth stage is to establish a connection with the selected candidate, obtain consent for cooperation and involve him in the creation of an advertising concept. At this stage, organizational issues for future cooperation are resolved.

At the fifth stage, the joint development of an advertising concept takes place. Experts advise bloggers not to use previously developed templates for advertising texts and note that people value sincerity and personal experience more than similar photos and memorized phrases [8]. Important at this step is to take into account all the opinions and recommendations of the elected influencer regarding all aspects of advertising information and its presentation (form, content, duration, music/sound accompaniment, etc.). The main task is to create an unobtrusive advertising message or native advertising, which will ensure a more effective attraction of the target audience, maintaining its interest and favorable attitude.

At the sixth stage, the advertising message is realized through the influence agent. It is imperative to avoid direct calls to purchase the company's advertised product, as this can lead to backlash and push consumers towards the opinion they are using. During the campaign, if such a need arises, it is possible to adjust the schedule, form, content, duration of the presentation of advertising information. The agent of influence is recommended to actively involve his supporters in the discussion in order to determine the attitude to the brand, the characteristics of its consumption, to determine the factors that deter potential consumers from making a purchasing decision or vice versa, form their loyalty.

At the last, seventh stage, the effectiveness of the ongoing advertising campaign is evaluated, the reviews of the target audience and its activity are analyzed. The measurement results are collected throughout the campaign and include the following qualitative and quantitative indicators: advertising messages made by the blogger, the number of "likes" under the messages, the number of views of publications and the degree of attraction to them, the number of comments and responses of the blogger, the number of promotional codes used, the number of new customers on the advice of a blogger. The most important indicator is ROMI (Return on Marketing Investment), which is calculated based on the results of each advertising campaign and is defined as the ratio of the result and the costs invested to achieve it.

Table

Stages of marketing activities to attract an influencer to promote a product/brand

Stages

1. Determining the purpose of the marketing impact

2. Study of the characteristics of target consumers and their preferences when choosing a blogger/opinion leader

  • Determination of the profile of the target audience
  • Defining an Influencer Profile

3. Selection of potential candidates for the position of an influential person

4. Establishing communication and discussing the terms of cooperation

5. Joint development of an advertising concept

6. Implementation of an advertising campaign

7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an advertising campaign

Conclusion

High rates of development of information technologies and active commercialization of the Internet space form the basis for the emergence and distribution of new communication formats, change the dynamics of communications and ensure the efficiency of two-way communication between the producer and the consumer. Innovative tools for promoting products and services using agents of influence provide a clear coverage of the target audience, effective interactive communication between the manufacturer and the potential consumer, the formation of desired behavioral patterns, and generally contribute to the realization of the company's economic interests. It should be noted that the effectiveness of opinion leaders as a communication tool is determined not so much by the number of their subscribers, but by the ability to attract and maintain the attention of their own audience, stimulate it to mutual communication, and receive a response. It is advisable to direct further research on this issue to the development of indicators of the effectiveness of advertising activities with the involvement of influential people in the promotion of products on the Internet.

Рецензент – Нагорный М. А.

Текст статьи
  1. Akulich M. V. Internet marketing: Textbook for bachelors / M. V. Akulich. - M .: Publishing and Trade Corporation "Dashkov and Co", 2020. - 352 p.
  2. Budozhapova V. Z., Danilova S. R. Specifics of product promotion through influencer marketing // Business strategies. - 2019. - No. 5 (61). - S. 14-16.
  3. Karpykbaeva A.B. Influencer marketing as a brand strategy // VEPS. - 2019. - No. 4. - S. 16-19.
  4. Kislitsyna A.A. Influence marketing in modern political campaigns // Society: politics, economics, law. - 2019. - No. 8 (73). - S. 54-58.
  5. Ryabokon E.M., Kuznetsova O.A., Shulzhenko K.S. Bloggers-influencers in the fashion industry // Structural and technological transformation of Russia: problems and prospects. From the GOELRO plan to the present day. - 2021. - No. 1. - S. 745-751.
  6. Influencer marketing: features, recommendations, examples. – URL: https://sales-generator.ru/blog/ marketing-vliyaniya/ (date of access: 07/08/2022).
  7. Nirschl, M., & Steinberg, L. Einstieg in das Influencer-Marketing: Grundlagen, Strategien und Erfolgsfaktoren. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien, 2018. 1-15 p.
  8. Smirnov K. Influence marketing trends: how to advertise with bloggers in 2020. URL: https://ppc.world/articles/trendy-inflyuens-marketinga-kak-reklamirovatsya-u-blogerov-v-2020-godu/ (Date of access: 06/06/2023).
Список литературы