Features of the modern development of the city of Ashgabat
The characteristic of the features of the capital of independent and neutral Turkmenistan is given. The main promising directions of the development of the metropolitan metropolis are shown.
The capital of independent and neutral Turkmenistan is the city of Ashgabat – the political, economic, scientific, educational and cultural center of the country. During the years of independence, the Turkmen capital has been radically transformed, and now embodies a universal model of a modern, dynamically growing and comfortable urban space. The city has become one of the largest political and economic centers of Central Asia. Ashgabat is a separate administrative-territorial unit - a city with the rights of a velayat. From an economic and geographical point of view, it occupies an advantageous geographical position, being at the crossroads of various transport routes connecting different regions of the country. The Turkmenbashi–Turkmenabat, Ashgabat–Karakum–Tashauz railways and highways pass through it. Ashgabat International Airport is an important intersection of international air lines. All this contributes to the successful development of the city as an important socio-economic center.
It should be noted that the territory of the city is expanding annually year after year due to the corresponding administrative and territorial changes. In the infusion currently, the city includes several administrative etraps: Kopetdagsky, Bezmeinsky, Berkararlyk and Bagtyarlyk.
As a result of the implementation of the innovative concept of the capital's development, Ashgabat is now recognized as one of the most beautiful and comfortable cities in the Eurasian region and the world. Evidence of this is the fact that a number of its objects were included in the Guinness Book of Records. This edition included such sights of the Turkmen capital as the world's tallest flagpole (133 meters), the largest fountain complex (27 synchronized fountains), the largest closed-type Ferris wheel, the eight-pointed star of Oguzkhan on the TV tower as the largest a large architectural image of a star. In 2013, Ashgabat itself was included in the book of records as the city with the largest number of white marble buildings. Turkmenistan was first marked in the Guinness Book of Records in 2001, when the world's largest handmade carpet with an area of 301 square meters and a weight of 1200 kilograms was included in it.
The prototype of the future capital of Turkmenistan is the mega-project of a large residential complex "Ashgabat City", which is being built in the north of the capital. The project created by domestic architects includes a complex of administrative buildings, service enterprises, medical institutions, cultural centers, higher educational institutions, residential areas. The infrastructure of the new complex will be built on the basis of the "smart city" model [1, 2]. The project reflects the traditions of national architecture and modern trends in world urban planning.
Due to the location of the city in the southern part of the desert zone and in the foothill plain, a dry subtropical climate prevails here, which is characterized as sharply continental, with very hot and dry summers and relatively short winters. The continentality of the climate is caused by the inland position of the city and its remoteness, like the whole of Turkmenistan, from large water basins and the proximity of the Karakum desert. For more than half a century, the Karakum River has remained the main hydraulic engineering structure of the country. Thanks to the Karakum River, the water of the Amu Darya River came to Ashgabat, which allowed solving the problem of providing water to the city and its surroundings [3, 4].
Ashgabat was formed on the site of the ancient fortresses of the Parthian Kingdom, which reached its heyday in 300 BC. They were located along the route of the Great Silk Road. In 1881, a Russian military fortification was established on the site of the former village of Askhabad. Industrial, commercial and military organizations of the Transcaspian region were concentrated here, which favored the establishment of economic relations with neighboring states. The city gradually began to develop. In 1924 - 1991, Ashgabat was the capital of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic. Over the years, small industrial enterprises have been established in the city. By population, Ashgabat is the largest city in Turkmenistan. About 20 percent of the country's population is concentrated in the city. According to the census of 1897, there were about 20 thousand people in the city. Over the past 120 years, the population has increased almost 40 times. Ashgabat is the most multinational city in the country. The majority of the population is Turkmen, but Russians, Tatars, Armenians and Azerbaijanis also live here. The city of Ashgabat is a major industrial center, where more than 10.9% of the country's industrial output is produced. Over the years of the country's independence, the structure of the city's industrial production has changed dramatically. Currently, such industries as electric power, mechanical engineering, metalworking, chemical, light and food industries are successfully developing.
In order to sustainably provide the capital with electricity, a gas turbine power plant with a capacity of 254.2 megawatts was built in 2006 in the southern part of the city. To improve the energy supply of the city, a ring energy transmission system was created. Ashneftemash, Azykmashingurlushyk, Turkmenkabel, Santehonumleri, Demir, Metalist and other mechanical engineering enterprises are located in the city. The construction materials industry includes a glass factory, the enterprises "Demirbetononumleri" and "Arkach". The pharmaceutical enterprises of the city produce more than 90 types of medicines.
In the city, special attention is paid to the development of light industry, which accounts for more than 40 percent of industrial production. The main enterprises of light industry include: textile complexes "Ashgabat" and "Turkmenbashi", silk-winding factory, production association "Turkmenhaly", firm "Argach", garment factories "Bahar" and "Akhal", knitting factory "Jahan", shoe factory.
Ashgabat is considered a developed center of the food industry. In terms of the volume of products produced, this industry ranks second. The food industry enterprises of Ashgabat specialize in the production of meat, dairy, confectionery, wine-making products. In the city there are numerous public and private shopping complexes and enterprises, institutions of consumer services for the population.
Ashgabat performs the function of an important transport hub providing communication between the velayats of the country and other states. Therefore, the railways and highways Ashgabat–Mary–Turkmenabat, Ashgabat–Tashauz, Ashgabat–Turkmenbashi pass through it. The city has a modern airport and an aero-station that meet international standards. The construction of a ring road with a length of 200 km has been completed. Ashgabat is a major cultural and scientific center of the country. The capital is being improved, turning into a modern capital city. On May 25, 2021, the construction of Ashgabat City was launched.
The prestige of Ashgabat as a regional and international center of diplomacy and neutrality is being strengthened. The headquarters of the UN Regional Center for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia is located in the capital, where the first global conference on sustainable transport was held with the participation of the UN Secretary General. Having turned into a universally recognized major regional center of business, cultural and international cooperation in recent years, Ashgabat has become a model of a rapidly developing modern metropolis.
The capital is a major political center in Central Asia, and in recent years its international prestige has increased significantly, major international meetings of a regional scale are held here. In 2007, the UN Regional Center for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia was established in Ashgabat, which also conducts various peacekeeping activities. In addition, the "European House" operates in Ashgabat to improve and strengthen economic, political and cultural relations with European countries.
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