The current state and prospects of development of the transport complex of Turkmenistan
The current state and prospects of development of the transport complex of independent and neutral Turkmenistan are described. The main directions of international cooperation in the railway industry of the country are shown.
The transport and communication complex of Turkmenistan combines all types of vehicles and related production and non-production systems. Transport and communication systems occupy a prominent place in achieving well-coordinated and efficient work of all sectors of the country's economy. Being a direct continuation of production, transport has a huge impact on the regional division of labor, specialization of the economy and its integrated development, as well as on the development of the country's natural resources. In the country, this complex is divided into land (rail and road), water (sea and river), air, pipeline transport and communications.
The main tasks of transport include ensuring reliable communication between the sectors of the economy and the regions of the country, as well as ensuring Turkmenistan's foreign trade with other states. To accomplish this task, all modes of transport must be interconnected, complement each other, forming a transport system. The transport system consists of all types of transport. Those points where several transport routes converge and goods are exchanged between them are called transport hubs.
The following transport hubs differ: homogeneous, in which at least two or three lines of the same type of transport converge, and complex – junctions of lines of various types of transport with passenger transfers and cargo transshipment. The largest transport hubs include such cities as Ashgabat, Turkmenbashi, and Turkmenabat.
The work of transport can be judged by its cargo turnover and passenger turnover. Cargo turnover is the amount of cargo transported over a certain period over a certain distance. Passenger turnover is the number of passengers transported over a certain distance (in passenger-kilometers). In our country, 99.2% of passenger transportation is accounted for by road transport.
Thus, the country's transport industry is a complex complex that unites more than 4,000 km of rail, about 15,000 km of highway (automobile), and more than 600 km of inland navigable sea routes, as well as air and sea transport facilities, pipelines and other facilities, including vehicle maintenance enterprises.
All types of transport differ in the following indicators: cost of transportation; speed of movement; reliability; comfort; exposure to adverse environmental conditions. The cost of transportation consists of the cost of the vehicle, the transport route and the cost of loading and unloading stations (airports, seaports, railway stations). The most expensive type of transport is aviation, but it is also the fastest. And the cheapest transport is by sea, because in sea transport the sea routes are free.
Our country is located at the crossroads of the transport routes of Europe and Asia, which is a favorable factor for the creation of both regional and international transport highways. The importance of transport for our country is significant due to the considerable extent of the territory, uneven distribution of natural resources and population. The measures and programs taken under the leadership of the esteemed President of Turkmenistan Serdar Berdimuhamedov in the transport sector are aimed at creating a unified, multidisciplinary national transport space that will ensure the competitiveness and efficiency of transit and international cargo transportation.
The railway complex is one of the most important modes of transport in the country for mass transportation of goods over long distances. At the end of the 19th century, the construction of the country's first railway began in the city of Krasnovodsk.
In 1885, this road reached the city of Ashgabat, and in December 1886, the first train arrived in the city of Chardzhou. In 1888, the country's first wooden bridge over the Amu Darya River was built, which was later replaced by a metal one. The length of this line from the city of Turkmenbashi to the border of Uzbekistan is 1,171 km. In the 1897-1898's, the Mary-Serkhetabat railway line was extended with a length of 311 km. And in the 1947-1955's, the Charjou-Gongrat railway was built with a length of 627 km. Railway tracks such as Balkanabat – Vyshka, Mukry – Magdanly, Takhyadash – Keneurgench were also built. Thus, by 1991, the total length of Turkmenistan's railways had reached more than 2,000 km.
The total length of railways in the country has increased several times over the past decade and amounted to about 4,000 km. Such important railway arteries as Tejen–Serakhs, Tashauz–Kunya-Urgench, the Ashgabat–Karakum–Tashauz railway have been built. The second Turkmenabat–Kerki railway line was also built.
With the commissioning in 2010 of an almost one and a half kilometer combined railway and automobile bridge, another transit route to neighboring countries – Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan - was opened. This new line and the bridge over the Amu Darya united the section of road on the right bank with the general railway network in the country, which gave impetus to the accelerated development of the Eastern Industrial District.
In order to effectively use natural resources and improve the work of the country's transport system, over the years of independence, especially in recent years, long highways of local and international importance have been built. Turkmenistan's location at the crossroads of the North–South transnational railway corridor points to the prospects for the development of mutually beneficial economic ties with foreign countries during the construction of large-scale international railways, highways and a network of pipelines.
OOT "Transport and Logistics Center of Turkmenistan" together with "Russian Railways Logistics" will launch the transportation of containers from the Selyatino railway station in the Moscow region to the Iranian port of Bandar Abbas as part of the development of the eastern branch of the international transport corridor "North - South".
Cargo transportation will be carried out through the Serahs station. In addition, to increase the profitability of export operations and transportation of perishable products, refrigerated wagons will be launched along the new route. It is noted that in the future the number of such shipments should increase to 5-6 per month. The launch of the new route is connected with the growing needs of customers and shippers in the region .
The eastern branch of the North-South, which runs through the territory of Turkmenistan, ensures uninterrupted delivery of products from the industrial regions of Central Russia and Northwestern Russia to the South Asian market, including through Iranian ports. Thus, the created infrastructure makes it possible to increase the local potential for the production of goods for further export.
Turkmenistan regularly buys modern types of transport. This applies to Boeing aircraft, as well as diesel locomotives, wagons, cars, sea vessels and other types of transport. The introduction of advanced technologies and standards, telecommunications and means of communication to meet the needs of the population reflect the accelerated development of the communication system of our country.
The transport and communication complex of our country is developing rapidly. In 2020, this industry accounted for more than 5 percent of the country's gross product. More than 6% of the economically active population of the country works in the transport and communication complex.
A special place in the logistics concept of the country is given to the formation of a national satellite communications system. The launch of the first national artificial satellite into outer space in April 2015 was a vivid evidence of active integration into the modern system of world economic relations, the formation of communication bridges of cooperation .
The establishment of Turkmenistan as a key link in the Central Asian region, the most important information and communication bridge between East and West is facilitated by the development of a national telecommunication communication system that meets international standards and ensures the quality of information communication. Thus, the logistics strategy of Turkmenistan determines a qualitatively new development of the entire complex of transport and communications industries, their close interaction and clear coordination of the movement of goods flows. The advantages of our country's geographical location at the crossroads of the continent's main roads allow our country to profitably realize the national transport resource to ensure Euro-Asian ties.
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