Перспективы развития транспортной системы Туркменистана
В современных условиях инновационного развития независимого и нейтрального Туркменистана возникает необходимость формирования национальной транспортно-логистической стратегии в целях совершенствования национальной транспортно-коммуникационной инфраструктуры. Полученные выводы и результаты указывают, что имеются предпосылки для плодотворного углубления межгосударственных транспортно-экономических отношений на межконтинентальном уровне, что положительно скажется на подъеме торговли нашей страны в глобальном масштабе.
One of the priorities of the state policy pursued by the respected President of independent and neutral Turkmenistan, Serdar Berdimuhamedov, is the creation of a stable transport and logistics system in the country in order to accelerate the economic and social development of the most important sectors of the national economy. In the transport sector, large-scale projects initiated by the Leader of the state are being successfully implemented, including the modernization of existing and construction of new roads and railways, modern renovation of the material and technical base of civil aviation and shipping .
Taking into account the favorable geographical position of Turkmenistan, through whose territory the most important trade routes of the region have been running since ancient times, is an important link in the global communication space. In the new historical era, its importance as a crossroads of transcontinental routes has increased even more. The national highway network, which has significantly expanded in recent years, in addition to strengthening international transport links, has given a powerful impetus to the dynamic development of the velayats.
The infrastructure of this sector is being improved – new airports are being built, steel highways, highways and bridges connecting Turkmenistan with neighboring countries are being laid, the transport fleet is regularly replenished with modern equipment.
Railway transport plays a significant role in the implementation of these plans. The special attention paid by the Leader of the Nation to the development of this industry with system-forming capabilities is due to the fact that rail transport is characterized by reliability and versatility, the ability to transport all types of goods and cargo at a fairly low cost of transportation, as well as the availability of territorial opportunities for the formation of the largest logistics center in the country, being at the crossroads of the largest main Eurasian communication routes.
The transport and logistics strategy of an independent and neutral country is based on the principle of historicism. As it is known, caravan routes of the Great Silk Road, connecting peoples and countries of several continents, have been running through the territory of Turkmenistan since ancient times. This has played a huge role in the development of civilization, in the interaction of East and West. In the modern era, significant opportunities have been created in the country both for the fullest realization of the transit and transport potential of the railway industry and for the innovative revival of the Great Silk Road.
At this stage of economic development in independent and neutral Turkmenistan, large-scale reforms are being carried out aimed at diversifying the national transport sector and giving it an innovative character. Taking into account the geostrategic advantages of the country, there is a successful systematic formation of transport and communication infrastructure, which creates the foundation for the improvement of various industries and agriculture, significantly increasing their investment potential. An important element of the modernization of this sector is the creation of modern logistics centers that meet international standards and are able to ensure the effective functioning of transport corridors [2, 3].
In modern conditions of structural and geographical diversification of the national economy, aimed at realizing the significant potential of transport and logistics systems, there is a need to study the features of flexible sociotechnical models. The main tasks of forming these models include: thorough analysis and search for the best harmonious relationship between the modern technologies used and the groups of specialists; creation of a flexible and effective management system in order to actively involve highly qualified personnel in the industry, increase both work efficiency and financial profit. The basic principles on which the sociotechnical system is built are determined by: innovation; development of human capital, flexible links with the environment; responsibility and high productivity; creation of general optimal conditions.
When analyzing the social block of this model, it is necessary to conclude that it must comply with the technical parameters of the industry. That is, the level of technical development should be sufficiently high in order to ensure the best use of human capital. It should be noted that when forming structures based on small groups of specialists, it is most expedient to take into account the following selection criteria: a high level of technical qualification; the ability to learn and retrain; sociability and willingness to cooperate, which is necessary to improve the efficiency of work in conditions of teamwork.
During career growth, it is necessary to consider both the individual and group contribution of an individual employee and the group as a whole to the successful achievement of goals, as well as how the employee's behavior corresponds to the accepted model. The sociotechnical model indicates the importance of investing certain investments in the retraining of each employee and employee, in the continuous improvement of production skills. As a result, favorable conditions are formed for the maximum reduction of staff turnover, favoring a creative approach and inventive activity.
Thus, the proposed model, due to the need for close interaction of working groups, contributes to the gradual elimination of various barriers between certain categories of employees and personnel. Prerequisites will be created for creating a positive psychological climate focused on long-term cooperation.
Our country enters the international market with economically advantageous offers of its transport and logistics services, which are relevant and in demand today. For example, the launched China-Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran transnational railway, being economically extremely profitable, will contribute not only to the realization of the huge transit potential of our country, but also significantly activates trade relations throughout the Eurasian region. This, in turn, is a serious prerequisite for deepening interstate economic relations at the intercontinental level, which will have a positive impact on the rise of trade on a global scale. Turkmenistan plays one of the key roles in the field of maritime transportation in the Caspian basin. Sea transportation is coordinated by the Agency "Türkmendenizderýaýollary", which is the central executive authority in the field of water transport, authorized in the field of public administration in the field of merchant shipping. This body implements the state policy in the field of water transport within Turkmenistan.
Thus, it can be confidently stated that the modernization of road transport infrastructure is one of the key priorities of the state transport strategy and stands out as one of the most important conditions and prerequisites for the modernization of the modern economy. The results of a study commissioned by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development confirm this and show that investments in infrastructure give a multiplicative effect at all levels of the economy .
In the state Program of socio-economic development of Turkmenistan, the country's territory is defined as a transcontinental economic bridge of interaction between the European, Asia-Pacific and South Asian economic systems. In the international arena, our country offers a comprehensive global transport strategy, which is designed to solve the tasks of combining the technical and technological potentials of states and regions, their geographical and infrastructural capabilities.
- Бердымухамедов Г.К новым высотам прогресса. Избранные произведения, третий том. Ашгабат, 2010 (на туркменском языке).
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- Кельбах С.В. Дорожно-транспортная инфраструктура как база модернизации региональной экономики // Известия Санкт-Петербургского государственного экономического университета. 2015. no. 4 (94).
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