Реализация транспортно-транзитного потенциала Туркменистана
Дан анализ имеющимся возможностям по реализации значительного потенциала по формированию современных транспортных коридоров и транспортных узлов в Туркменистане. Указано на целесообразность создания международного логистического центра в городе Туркменбаши. Обоснована необходимость внедрения на транспортных предприятиях страны систем управления качеством, соответствующих международным стандартам.
Currently, the global communication system is being actively improved, as a result of which intercontinental transport corridors and transport hubs are being created. This dynamic development is accompanied by acute economic competition and is becoming an important element of transport diplomacy. The Government of independent and neutral Turkmenistan attaches great importance to the creation of international transport corridors, as well as the improvement of the state's road infrastructure. The consistent political initiatives of respected President Serdar Berdimuhamedov in the transport sector are aimed at optimizing transport flows throughout the Eurasian space .
The program includes such areas as the development of the legal framework of the transport sector and international cooperation in this area, the preparation of the Road Transport Code of Turkmenistan, the effective continuation of mutually beneficial cooperation with international organizations.
All efforts undertaken at the international, regional and national levels should undoubtedly be supported by concrete practical steps to develop solid infrastructure and jointly develop main interregional transit and transport corridors. Turkmenistan continues to strengthen the legal and logistical base of the Lapis-Lazuli corridor (Afghanistan-Turkmenistan-Azerbaijan-Georgia-Turkey), the Ashgabat Agreement transit corridor (Uzbekistan-Turkmenistan-Iran-Oman), transport arteries within the framework of the two seas initiative "Caspian Sea –Black Sea" and other interregional transport bridges in the following directions "East-West" and "North-South".
Coordinated, responsible and far-sighted decisions aimed at minimizing the consequences of the crisis and achieving sustainable economic growth indicators as soon as possible are now more important than ever. An important prerequisite for this, in our opinion, could be a more active discussion at the UN level, in parallel with the global strategic plans for transport cooperation, issues related to the harmonization of norms and rules, simplification of customs and migration procedures and other pressing issues related to international cooperation in the field of transport. The forms of such convergence, their geographical configuration, speed and modalities may be different. The main thing is that they promote effective partnership, taking into account mutual interests, and contribute to global sustainable development plans.
One of the most important tasks specified in the "National Program of socio-economic development of Turkmenistan for the period 2022-2052" is the gradual integration of the transport system of Turkmenistan into the world transport space in order to successfully realize the huge transit potential of the country.
Research by leading economists shows that logistics services in our country will be in high demand in the coming years due to the active development of transport infrastructure and a significant increase in both transit volumes and regional trade.
As a result of active trade cooperation with the countries of Europe and Asia, active work is underway in our country to improve transport and trade infrastructure, large warehouse terminals are being created for the storage, processing and distribution of various export-import cargoes. The favorable historical and geographical location of Turkmenistan at the crossroads of trade routes, the creation of a North-South transport corridor are strategically important aspects and indicate the need to develop a national network of logistics centers that will minimize material costs for the delivery of goods to manufacturing organizations and firms, as well as optimize international cargo transportation. The automotive, air and marine industries are successfully developing in the transport system of Turkmenistan.
Today, being an integral part of the Great Silk Road, Turkmenistan plays a significant role in its innovative development. The main priority for the development of transport and logistics systems formed in the country is the activation of the private sector, the dynamic development of the financial sector and integration into other states by accelerating commodity exchange processes based on regional transport infrastructure. Turkmenistan in recent years has outlined.
The key goal is the consolidation of the Caspian Littoral states in the field of transport infrastructure and initiates the transformation of the Caspian Sea into a key, powerful transport and transit hub of international importance, allowing it to become a driver for the development of a new geo-economic space of Eurasia.
The railway bridge over the Amu Darya River, the Turkmenabat–Farab automobile bridge, as well as the Mary–Serkhetabat, Turkmenabat–Gazachak–Dashoguz, Turkmenabat–Turkmenbashi highways commissioned in the entire Eurasian economic space are among the largest. By participating in the TRACECA projects "International Logistics Centers in Central Asia: in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Tajikistan, the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Turkmenistan", our state is taking practical steps to revive the Great Silk Road, contributing to strengthening its status as the most important transport hub in the region. As part of the implementation of this project, a feasibility study was prepared in 2010 for the establishment of an international logistics center in the city of Turkmenbashi.
This complex off the coast of the Caspian Sea will be the largest modern intermodal facility in Central Asia, capable of providing storage and processing services for significant volumes of raw materials and products and designed for fast and efficient cargo passage. The development plan of the International Logistics Center as part of the expansion of the port includes the construction of the following facilities: an office building with a dining room and a parking lot; an automobile and railway container terminal and depot; warehouses, including refrigerated ones; a guarded parking lot for trucks; a zone of lifting equipment (container stackers) and transshipment of goods from road transport to rail; berthing area with 9 berths with the necessary lifting equipment and gantry cranes and a complex of treatment facilities. It also provides for the allocation of zones for further development and expansion, as well as those intended for rental [2, 3].
In order to attract transit cargo traffic through the territory of our state, active work is underway to improve the quality of services provided by transport and logistics companies. Therefore, one of the main priorities of our country's economic development is the introduction of quality management systems at the country's enterprises that meet international standards.
Taking into account the increasing competition in the market of transport and logistics services, transport companies engaged in international cargo transportation need to be certified according to the quality management system (ISO 9001:2008) in the field of transport and warehouse logistics.
In September 2014, an international conference was successfully held in Ashgabat, where representatives of more than 30 countries considered the issues of expanding transit and transport corridors. As a result of the conference, the Ashgabat Declaration was adopted, the key elements of which are specified in the Resolution "The role of transport and transit corridors in ensuring international cooperation for sustainable development", unanimously adopted at the 69th session of the UN General Assembly.
The initiative of our State to hold the first World Conference in Ashgabat at the end of 2016 indicates the continuation of the international dialogue aimed at the sustainable and effective development of the global transport system. It should also be noted that the transport and logistics infrastructure makes it possible to implement optimal solutions on the territory of the state, as well as on the territories of neighboring states of optimal logistics schemes, taking into account the required parameters, using its own developed terminal network on the terms of a security guarantee provided by the political and economic stability of the market .
The key points of growth are multi-modal transport and logistics facilities in the centers of attraction to the routes of international transport corridors, the infrastructure of which can be considered as the logistics framework of the terminal network of Turkmenistan.
- Бердымухамедов Г. Независимый, постоянно нейтральный. Туркменистан. Ашхабад: 2014.
- Lay M.G. Handbook of Road Technology. Spon Press: 2009.
- Неруш Ю. М., Саркисов С. В. Транспортная логистика. Москва: 2023.
- Герами В. Д., Колик А. В. Управление транспортными системами. Москва: 2023.