Возможности развития делового туризма в национальной туристической зоне «Аваза»
Рассмотрены возможности организации делового туризма в Национальной туристической зоне «Аваза». Показаны особенности развития конгрессного туризма на побережье Каспийского моря. Указана важность формирования в городе Туркменбаши крупного транспортного узла, способствующего привлечению зарубежных инвестиций, в том числе и в национальную туристическую отрасль.
In independent and neutral Turkmenistan, the Avaza National Tourist Zone makes a significant contribution to the development of business tourism. Effectively using the high tourism potential of the Caspian region, our country thereby creates a solid foundation for further comprehensive development and fruitful cooperation in the implementation of joint projects with foreign investors.
The national tourist zone "Avaza" on the shore of the Caspian Sea is one of the most popular holiday destinations in Turkmenistan. This National Tourist Zone is an example of the state's concern for the health of the nation and the creation of favorable conditions for the recreation of residents and guests of our country. The Turkmen coast of the Caspian Sea is famous for its golden sandy beaches, amazing seascapes, and mild climate. But it is also an ecologically unique natural area. So the team of the world-famous French oceanographer Jacques Yves Cousteau specially studied this water area.
By the size of its basin, the Caspian Sea is considered the largest closed reservoir on Earth. Its total area is 378,400 km2, which is about 18% of the total area of the world's lakes and 4.5 times the area of the second largest lake in the world – the Upper One (84,100 km2, North America). At the same time, the area of the Caspian Sea is commensurate and even significantly exceeds the area of some seas of the World Ocean: the Baltic (387,000 km2), the Adriatic (139,000 km2).
The maximum depth of the Caspian Sea is 1,025 meters. In terms of maximum depth, the Caspian Sea is second only to Lake Baikal (1,620 m) and Lake Tanganyika (1,435 m). The average depth of the Caspian Sea, calculated by the bathygraphic curve, is 208 meters. At the same time, the northern part of the Caspian Sea is shallow, its maximum depth does not exceed 25 meters, and the average depth is 4 meters.
The relief of the bottom of the northern part of the Caspian Sea is a shallow undulating plain with banks and accumulative islands. The average depth of the Northern Caspian is about 4 – 8 meters, the maximum does not exceed 25 meters. The Mangyshlak threshold separates the Northern Caspian from the Middle One. The middle Caspian is quite deep, the water depth in the Derbent depression reaches 788 meters. The Absheron Threshold separates the Middle and Southern Caspian. The Southern Caspian is considered deep-water, the depth of water in the South Caspian Depression reaches 1,025 meters from the surface of the Caspian Sea.
Since the Caspian is an internal body of water, its level is influenced by the general inflow of rivers, tectonic processes and the unique Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay. The level of the bay is noticeably lower than sea level and sea water is constantly flowing into the bay. The world's most significant reserves of Glauber's salt, the most valuable raw material for the country's chemical industry, are also concentrated here.
According to one hypothesis, the Caspian Sea got its name in honor of the ancient tribes of horse breeders - the Caspian, who lived in the 1st millennium BC on the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea. In total, the sea had about 70 names from different tribes and peoples.
From north to south, the Caspian Sea stretches for more than a thousand kilometers, so its climate varies significantly. Changeable weather is caused by intrusions of cold Arctic air, and warm air from the Mediterranean and Iran, moist Atlantic air masses and dry air from the desert territories of Central Asia.
The Caspian Sea is distinguished by its special composition of various trace elements useful for the human body. Medical scientists confirm that sea bathing gives a hardening effect, the human body is comprehensively affected by both temperature and chemical composition of water, clean sea air containing more moisture, ozone, salt crystals and phytoncides. The salts of minerals contained in the sea water of the Caspian Sea – sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and others, as well as trace elements – iodine, bromine have a positive effect on the activity of the nervous system and metabolism.
With the optimization of transport flows in the Eurasian space, interregional and intercontinental ties are gaining a new strategic perspective. Of course, the decision to build the port was dictated primarily by internal needs. The west of Turkmenistan, the Caspian coast is one of the most dynamically developing regions of our country.
The International Seaport of Turkmenbashi, located on the coast, forms a powerful industrial, energy, transport, and communication infrastructure, and the foundation of the modern gas chemical industry is being laid.
And the modern port infrastructure will give a powerful impetus to the national economy, attracting investment in its various segments, including the tourism sector. The modern seaport is intended to become the most important link in the formation of a modern maritime transportation system, creating the most favorable conditions for access to the Black Sea coast, to the countries of Europe, the Middle East, South Asia and the Asia-Pacific region, allowing significantly reducing distances and travel time for large-scale cargo flows. The international seaport of the city of Turkmenbashi can be called historical without exaggeration, since its implementation takes the country to a new round of relations, contributing to their full-scale integration into the international system of economic relations, increasing the role of Turkmenistan as an important center of transit communications.
In addition to favorable climatic conditions, the choice of the city of Turkmenbashi and its environs for the creation of the first National Tourist Zone in Turkmenistan "Avaza" is also due to the richest reserves and diversity of natural resources of the Caspian region. Huge hydrocarbon resources, deposits of mineral raw materials for the chemical industry and the construction industry are concentrated here, which is an important factor contributing to attracting foreign investment. The very creation of this zone is distinguished by a fundamentally new approach to the realization of the enormous natural and economic potential of our state due to the diversification of all spheres of the national economy.
The construction of the Exhibition Palace, Business Center, cultural and entertainment complex has made Avaza not only a place of mass recreation, but also a place of economic activity, business and business meetings, festivals, forums, exhibitions, conferences and summits. In an independent and neutral state, government agencies also make a significant contribution to the development of business tourism, which ensures significant prestige of the events organized here and great attention to them by the world media. The specially constructed Congress Center is a majestic structure designed for high-level international meetings, conferences, business and cultural forums.
Every year, a number of major international events are held here, including the international conference "Main directions and potential of tourism development in Turkmenistan", held in March 2023. The peculiarity of business tourism in Avaza is that it offers events in the atmosphere of the resort. Coming here to participate in exhibitions, seminars or conferences, business people not only solve their questions about their direct activities, but can also get acquainted with local objects of educational tourism at the same time [1, 2].
- Нюренбергер Л. Б., Рогалева Н. Л. Современный деловой туризм: структура, особенности, развитие // Финансовые рынки и банки.2021.no. 8.
- Davidson R. Business Travel: Conferences, Incentive Travel, Exhibitions, Corporate Hospitality and Corporate Travel // R. Davidson, B. Cope. London, United Kingdom: Pearson Education. 2003.
- Морозова Н.Н. Деловой туризм как социально-экономический инструмент инновационного развития региона // Advanced Engineering Research (Rostov-on-Don).2012. no. 3 (64).