The main directions of the formation of the energy security system of Turkmenistan

A comprehensive review of the current state and prospects for the development of the fuel and energy complex of independent and neutral Turkmenistan, which is the main part of the country's energy security system, has been conducted. The analysis of the initiatives of our state together with the United Nations on sustainable development of energy mobility is given. The expediency of building a transnational Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India gas pipeline is substantiated. Strict observance of environmental standards in the production of domestic petrochemical products is indicated. It is concluded that it is necessary to further intensify cooperation between our country and international structures on various aspects of international energy security.

Аннотация статьи
fuel and energy complex
oil reserves
gas fields
transnational gas pipeline
energy mobility and safety
petrochemical products
ecological standards
Ключевые слова

In independent and neutral Turkmenistan, the energy policy implemented under the leadership of respected President Serdar Berdimuhamedov is primarily aimed at the comprehensive development of the domestic fuel and energy complex and its gradual integration into the international energy system. Large-scale investment projects carried out in our country are of great economic importance, as they make a significant contribution to strengthening international energy security [1].

Turkmenistan, being one of the largest energy countries in the world, pays great attention to the creation of a modern architecture of international energy security. Thus, at the 78th session of the United Nations General Assembly, our country took the initiative to adopt a resolution on stable and reliable energy mobility. The draft resolution provided for the possibility of holding the International Forum "Sustainable Energy for All" in Turkmenistan in 2025 in order to promote global efforts to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy sources, as well as to summarize the results of the Decade of Sustainable Energy for the period 2014-2024.

In addition, in December 2023, the United Nations General Assembly, at the 49th plenary meeting of the 78th session, unanimously adopted a resolution: "Strengthening links between all modes of transport to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals." The resolution, which was developed on the initiative of Turkmenistan, was co-sponsored by about 50 States. This resolution is aimed at the continuous functioning and strengthening of the transport system and transport infrastructure in all relevant aspects necessary for the sustainable development of the world's countries.

The export of Turkmen natural gas to foreign markets through the processes of diversification of the fuel and energy complex is one of the priorities of the energy strategy of an independent and neutral state [2]. As a result of geological studies conducted during the years of independence, it was discovered that the country has huge underground reserves of hydrocarbon resources. The Turkmenistan–China gas pipeline, the source of which is the Galkynyş gas field, began operating in 2009. This large-scale project, which supplies Turkmen "blue fuel" to a friendly country, is a great contribution of our state to the development of international energy cooperation and security [3].

Currently, Turkmen natural gas is sent to foreign markets via the Dovletabat–Deryalyk, Korpedje–Gurtguyi and Dovletabat–Hangeran gas pipelines. The commissioning of the East–West gas pipeline with an annual capacity of 30 billion cubic meters has combined all the country's gas pipelines into one unified system. As a result, the East–West gas pipeline has created an important condition for the flow of Turkmen energy resources through the Caspian Sea to international markets.

Of particular importance in this area is the construction of the Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India (TAPI) gas pipeline, which is one of the largest projects of the century. This project is evidence of the successful implementation of Turkmenistan's energy strategy, the key aspects of which are: comprehensive modernization of the national fuel and energy complex, building up its potential with a view to the future; creation of new energy transportation systems to the world market. The TAPI project is designed not only to ensure the supply of Turkmen natural gas to South Asian countries, but also to become a key factor in strengthening economic partnership, contributing to the consolidation of peace and stability in the region. This project will contribute to solving such important issues as the peaceful reconstruction of neighboring Afghanistan, improving its socio-economic structure, creating new jobs and improving the standard of living of residents of the neighboring state. The implementation of new, promising projects in the gas industry is one of the key vectors of our state's policy. In accordance with the economic strategy of the esteemed President of Turkmenistan, the solution of tasks aimed at diversifying the entire national economic complex is also aimed at increasing the volume and expanding the range of domestic petrochemical products that are in high demand abroad.

Possessing huge reserves, Turkmenistan pays great attention to the creation of modern oil and gas refining facilities, sending energy resources to world markets in order to use them for the benefit of all mankind. In this regard, the production capacities of the Turkmenbashi complex of oil refineries of the State Concern Turkmennebit are constantly increasing. Currently, the complex of plants produces gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation, lighting and technical kerosene, liquefied gas, engine oils and various types of polypropylene, calcined coke, petroleum coke, road and construction bitumen, polypropylene coatings of various thicknesses and other petrochemical products.

Along with increasing oil and gas production, strengthening the raw material base of the industry, creating a multi-variant system for transporting Turkmen energy carriers to world markets, much attention is paid to the technical and technological equipment of enterprises in the energy sector, mutually beneficial cooperation with enterprises processing hydrocarbons. To this end, the capacities of industries specializing in deep processing of hydrocarbon raw materials are gradually increasing. An example of this is the polymer plant in Kiyanli, which produces various natural gas processing products, as well as the gasoline production plant in Akhal.

Focusing the attention of the world community on energy security issues, Turkmenistan has been actively developing ties with foreign companies in recent years. The joint work of Turkmen and foreign specialists contributes to the achievement of the set goals by establishing direct productive contacts, launching new projects, getting acquainted with global trends and prospects for the development of the industry.

Thus, the annual industry exhibitions, meetings and conferences serve as an effective platform for the wide popularization of the achievements of the domestic fuel and energy complex and the promotion of international cooperation in the relevant field. These large specialized forums aimed at strengthening and expanding cooperation in the field of energy are held not only in the traditional format, but also online, with the participation of delegates from dozens of countries around the world. The events are attended by representatives of government agencies, relevant ministries and departments, the world's leading oil and gas business structures, financial institutions, reputable international organizations, diplomatic and scientific circles, and foreign experts. During the forums, such topical topics as ensuring global energy security, covering the production, transportation and final consumption of energy carriers, principles of relations with interested partners, prospects for the development of energy diplomacy, alternative energy, innovative technologies and know-how in hydrocarbon production, reduction of methane and associated gases emissions are discussed.

In our country, when developing the national gas chemical and oil refining industries, environmental safety issues are also taken into account. This is evidenced by the industrial facilities being put into operation, where compliance with environmental standards in accordance with international standards is given special importance. In recent years, there has been an intensification of cooperation between our country and international structures in order to minimize environmental risks in the extraction of energy resources, the introduction of effective protective technologies into the production cycle, and the use of modern management solutions [4]. Currently, the work carried out in the country in this direction is yielding positive results.

Thus, in accordance with the innovation policy of independent and neutral Turkmenistan, further expansion of production capacities of the oil and gas industry will be closely linked to ensuring energy security, sustainable economic development goals at the global and regional levels, which will serve the well-being of the Turkmen people.

Текст статьи
  1. Бердымухамедов Г. Туркменистан на пути достижения Целей устойчивого развития //А.: Туркменская государственная издательская служба. – 2018.
  2. Караев Б. С., Хаитбаева Ш. К. Геополитические аспекты развития газовой отрасли Туркменистана // Проблемы и перспективы социально-экономического реформирования современного государства и общества. 2015. С.123-125.
  3. Haitbayeva S.K. The modern state and prospects of development of the Turkmen-Chinese strategic cooperation //Joint innovation-Joint development: I Foreign International Scientific Conference (Gingdao (China). 2023. pp. 90-93.
  4. Haitbayeva S. Territorial aspects of improving international mechanisms of environmental regulation in the Caspian region // American Journal of Science. 2021. Т. 2. №. 55. С. 22-23.
Список литературы